These are the notes we distributed at our Passiontide music concert
Antonio Lotti [ c1667 - 1740] His father was Kapellmeister in Hanover but Antonio received much of his early training as a church musician in Venice as a pupil of Lagrenzi. From 1689 he began a lifelong association with the basilica of St Mark, working his way through the ranks as a singer, then as organist, until he was named as primo maestro di capella in1736. He wrote a significant amount of sacred music for St Mark's and for the female singers of the Ospedale degli Incurabili. His recorded absences from Venice are rare, but between September 1717 and the autumn of 1719 he was granted leave to travel to Dresden where he wrote three operas. The sources for the edition of Crucifixus being performed tonight are from libraries in Dresden and Vienna.
"He was crucified even for us under Pontius Pilate, he suffered and was buried" from the Credo
Alonso Lobo [ 1555 - 1617 ] In his lifetime he was thought the equal of Victoria and probably studied as a choirboy under Guerrero who was choirmaster at Seville Cathedral. He returned to Seville in 1591 to help the aging Guerrero. After a period at Toledo Cathedral [ 1593 to 1604 ] he returned to Seville until his death. CORNYSHE, William, [b. , East Greenwich. d. , c. October 1523, Kent.] Connected with the Chapel Royal from 1496 he took over as Master in1509. He took the Chapel Royal to France with the king in 1513 and again in 1520 to the Field of Cloth of Gold. He wrote both secular and sacred music and devised plays, masques and pageants being a principal actor at court and a favourite of Henry VIII who granted him a manor in Kent. His father, also William, had been the first master of the choristers at Westminster 1479 - 91.
Alonso Lobo [ 1555 - 1617 ] In his lifetime he was thought the equal of Victoria and probably studied as a choirboy under Guerrero who was choirmaster at Seville Cathedral. He returned to Seville in 1591 to help the aging Guerrero. After a period at Toledo Cathedral [ 1593 to 1604 ] he returned to Seville until his death.
Lamentationes Ieremiae Prophetae. [The first lesson at Matins(Tenebrae) of Holy Saturday.
From the Lamentations of Jeremiah. Heth. By the mercies of the Lord we are not consumed, because his compassions have not failed. Heth. They are new every morning, great is thy faithfulness. Heth. The Lord is my portion, saith my soul; therefore will I hope in him. Teth. The Lord is good unto them that waiteth for him, to the soul that seeketh him. Teth. It is good that a man should both hope and quietly wait for the salvation of the Lord. Teth . It is good for a man that hath born the yoke from his youth. Jod. He sitteth alone and keepeth silence because he hath born it upon him. Jod. He putteth his mouth in the dust; if so there may be hope. Jod. He giveth his cheek to him that smiteth him; he is filled full with reproach. Jerusalem, return to the Lord thy God.
Yif ic of luve can [The text is in Medieval English.] BENJAMIN BRITTEN
When I see on the Cross Jesu my lover And by him stand Mary and John And his back scourged And his side pierced For the love of man Well ought I to weep And his to abandon If I know of love.
Michael Barley has sung with the Consort for many years and has set several liturgical texts for the choir. This setting of the STABAT MATER DOLOROSA was composed in 2000..
THE COMPOSERS AND THEIR TEXTS Tomas Luis de Victoria, the greatest composer of the Spanish 16th century "golden age" 0f polyphonic music, was born in Avila in 1548 and in about 1558 became a choirboy in Alvila Cathedral, where he received his earliest musical training. When his voice broke he was sent to the Collegium Germanicum in Rome in which he was enrolled as a student in 1565. He spent the next 20 years in Rome occupying a number of important posts there. He succeeded Palestrina as Maestro di Capella at the Roman Seminary in 1571. In 1575 he took holy orders and three years later was admitted to chaplaincy at S. Girolamo della Caritá. Around 1587 he left Italy taking up an appointment as chaplain to the dowager Empress Maria at the Royal Convent for Barefoot Clarist Nuns, where he acted as maestro to the choir of priests and boys attached to the convent. The music he published was only a fifth as much as that of Palestrina and contains no secular works but it shows a very high level of musical craftsmanship containing more accidentals and subtle use of harmonic colouration than that of his contemporaries and having a quality of passionate intensity.
TENEBRAE RESPONSORIES Tomas Luis de Victoria (ca. 1548 - 1611)
Feria VI in Coena Domini [Good Friday] ad Matutinum[Tenebrae] in secundo nocturno, Responsorium IV, V & VI
R Tamquam ad latronam existis cum gladiis et fustibus comprehendere me. Quotidie apud vos eram in templo docens et non me tenuistis: et ecce flagelatum ducitis ad crucifigendum. V Cumque iniecissent manus in Iesum, et tenuissent eum, dixit ad eos. R You are come out as it were to a robber with swords and clubs to apprehend me: * I was daily with you teaching in the temple and you laid not hands upon me: yet now you scourge me and lead me to be crucified. V And when they had laid hands on Jesus and held him fast, he said to them:*
R Tenebrae factae sunt dum crucifixis Iesum Iudae: et circa horam nonam exclamavit Iesus voce magna: Deus meus ut quid me dereliquisti ? * Et inclinato capite emisit spiritum. V Exclamans Iesus voce magna ait: Pater, in manus tuas comendo spiritum meum. R There was darkness when the Jews crucified Jesus; and about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice: My God, why hast thou forsaken me? * And bowing down his head, he gave up the ghost. V Jesus, crying out with a loud voice, said: Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit*
R Animam meam dilectam tradidi, in manus iniquorum, et facta est mihi haereditas mea, sicut leo in silva: dedit contra me voces adversarius meus. Congregamini , et properate ad devorandum illum: posuerunt me in deserto solitudinis, et luxit super me omnis terra. * Quia non est inventus qui me agnosceret, et faceret bene. V Insurrexerunt in me viri absque misericordia, et non pepercerunt animae mea. * R I delivered the soul that I had loved into the hands of the wicked, and my inheritance is become to me like a lion in the forest. My adversary spoke out against me saying: Come together and make haste to devour him. They placed me in a solitary desert, and all earth mourned for me; * Because there was none that would know me and do good to me. V Men without mercy rose up against me, and they spared not my life.
Sabbato sancto [Holy Saturday] ad Matutinum [Tenebrae] in secondo nocturno, Responsorium IV, V & VI.
R Resesit pastor noster, fons aquae vivae, ad cuius transitum sol obscuratus est: * Nam et ille captus est qui capivum tenebat primum hominem: hodie portas mortis et seras pariter Salvator noster disrupit. V Destruxit quidem claustra inferni, et subvertit potentias diaboli. *
R Our shepherd, the fount of the living water, is gone, at whose passing the sun was darkened, * For he is taken, who took captive the first man: today our Saviour burst open both the gates and the bolts of death. V He destroyed the prisons of hell and overthrew the might of the devil.*
R O vos omnes, qui transitis per viam, attendite, et videte * Si est dolor similis sicut dolor meus. V Attendite universi populi, et videte dolorem meum. * R O all ye that pass by the way, attend and see * if there be sorrow like my sorrow. V Watch, all ye people, and see my sorrow.
R Ecce quo modo moritur iustus, et nemo percipit corde: et viri iusti tolluntur, et nemo considerat a facie iniquitatis sublatus est iustus. * Et erit in memoria eius. V amquam agnus coram tondente se obmutuit et non aperuit os suum: de angustia, et de iudicio sublatus est. * R Behold how the just man dies, and no one takes it to heart, and just men are taken away, and no one cares about it: the just man has been taken away from the face of iniquity: * And his memory shall be in peace. V He was mute as a lamb before the shearer, and he opened not his mouth: he was taken away from anguish and from judgement. *
PIANTO DELLA MADONNA Monteverdi Iam Moriar mi Fili, Quis nam poterit mater consolari in hoc fero dolore; in hoc tam duro tormento? Iam Moriar mi Fili Mi Jesu, O Jesu mi sponse, mi dilecte, mea spes, mea vita, me deferis heu vulnus cordis mei. Respice Jesu mi, precor, rspice matrem tuam quae gemendo pro te pallidam languet atque in morte funesto in hoc tam dura et tam immani Cruce, tecum petit affigi, mi Jesu, O Jesu mi, O potens homo, oDeus cuius pectores heu tanti doloris quo torquetur Maria, miserere gementis, tecumquae extinta sit quae per te vixit. Sed promptus ex hac vita discendis O mi Fili, et ego, hic ploro, tu confringes infernum hoste victo superbo, et ego, relinquor preda doloris solitaria et mesta Te Pater almus, te que fons amoris suscipiant laeti, et ego te non videbo O Pater, O mi sponse Haec sunt promissa Archangeli Gabrielis, haes illa excelsa sedes antiqui Patris David; sunt haec regalia septra quae tibi cingant crines, haec ne sunt aurea sceptra et fine regnum, affigi duro ligno et clavis laniari atquae corona. Ah Jesu mi en mihi dulce mori ecce plorando, ecce clamando rogat, Te misera Maria,. nam tecum mori est illi gloria et vita. Hei Fili non respondes, hei surdes ad flectus atquae quarellas, O morso culpa , O inferne esse sponsus meus mersus in undis velox, O terrae centrum aperite profundum et cum dilecto meo quoque absconde. Quid loquor? Heu quid spero, misera, heu iam quid quero, O Jesu mi non sit quid volo, sed fiat quod tibi placet, vivat mestum cor meum pleno dolore pascere Fili mi, Matris amore.
Now let me die, my son. How can a mother be consoled in this fierce pain; in such harsh torment? Now let me die, my son. My Jesus, Jesus my spouse, my delight, my hope, my life You are taken from me alas, you wound my heart. Look upon me Jesus, I pray look upon your mother who is groaning, pale and languishing for you in your death on the harsh and pitiless cross, she seeks to be fixed with you, my Jesus, O man of power, O God! Mary is tortured by your pain in her heart, take pity on her who grieves with you; who lives and dies with you. But you are departing quickly from this life, my son, and I am weeping here; you break through hell defeating the proud enemy, and I, left a prey to sorrow, lone and sad. May the gentle father, the fount of love, and the blessed ones, take you up, but I will not see you again, O Father, O my spouse! Is this the promise of the Archangel Gabriel? this the high throne of our father David? this the royal crown that is to surround your hair, this the golden sceptre and kingdom, fixed to the hard cross, pierced with nails and a crown of thorns? Ah my Jesus, it would be sweet to die, see how weeping and crying wretched Mary calls you, for to die with you is glory and life. Ah my son you do not reply, alas you are deaf to my tears and complaining, oh anguish for my betrothed to be consumed and swallowed in the waves, oh may the deep abyss of the earth open to hide me also with my beloved. What am I saying?, Alas what can I hope for, wretched as I am? What do I seek? Oh my Jesus, may not what I want but your will come to pass. Let my heart live in sadness, full of grief. Feed on a mother's love my son. SCHÜTZ, Heinrich (1587 - 1672). The most important German composer of his generation, Schütz was a pupil of Giovanni Gabrieli in Venice and later of Monteverdi. He was a member of the court musical establishment of Landgrave Moritz of Hessen-Kassel, later entering the service of the Electors of Saxony in Dresden. This service was interrupted by work for the king of Denmark involving three visits during 1633 - 35. His works include a very large amount of church music the scale of which largely depended on the economic situation of the Dresden court chapel.
Die Sieben Worte Jesu Christi am Kreuz Passiontide cantata for 5 solo voices , five-part chorus, 5 obligato instruments & continuo .
Chorus; When Jesus hung on the Cross in agony , grief and desolation, the seven words which Jesus spake inspire thy meditation. Evangelist [A]; And it was at the third hour that they crucified him. But he said... Jesus; Father forgive them for they know not what they do. Evangelist [T]; There stood watching near the cross Mary, Jesus' mother, and with her stood her sister one Mary, Cleopas' wife, also Mary Magdalene. Now when Jesus saw his mother and with her that disciple whom he loved, He said unto his mother..... Jesus; See beside thee, that is thy son ! Evangelist [T]; And then unto that disciple.... Jesus; Behold John, that is thy mother ! Evangelist [T]; And from henceforth, John took her unto himself. Evangelist [S]; Later , one of the malefactors , that were hanged with him, railed on him and said... Malefactor [A]; Thou that sayest that thou art Christ, bring help for thee and us ! Evangelist [S]; But the other malefactor chided him and said..... Malefactor [B]; Hast thou then no fear of God, for thou art in the like condemnation? For great indeed are our offences, which receive their just reward: He however has done nought amiss. Evangelist [S]; And saith to Jesus...... Malefactor [B]; Lord, remember me in thy heavenly kingdom. Evangelist [S]; And Jesus said... Jesus; Truly I say to thee, ere long thou shalt be with me in Paradise. Evangelist [A]; And when it was the ninth hour Jesus cried aloud and said.... Jesus; Eli, Eli, lama asabthani? Evangelist [A]; That is interpreted..... Jesus; My God why hast thou forsaken me? Evangelist [A]; Then Jesus, knowing that all things were done, cried and said........ Jesus; I thirst ! Evangelist [T]; A soldier, when he heard him calling, ran from hence and took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar and hyssop and put it on a reed and held it to his mouth to drink. Now when Jesus had drunk of the vinegar, he said........ Jesus; It is finished ! Evangelist [T]; Then, yet again he cried aloud and said..... Jesus; Father into thy hands I commend my spirit ! Evangelist [A] And having said these words Jesus bowed his head and gave up the ghost. Chorus; He who God's agony doth esteem And bears in mind the Seven Words May rest secure in God's own keeping Both here on earth through his sweet grace And there in the life everlasting.